The PROKON Structural Analysis and Design suite includes a number of modules with which you can design most types of steel members. Some modules interact with Sumo Structural Modeller, Frame Analysis and Single Span Beam Analysis, allowing you to effortlessly post-process analysis results.

### Analysis-Design Integration

Summary of integration between analysis and design and detailing modules:

### Truss and Frame Design

Two modules are available for design and optimisation of basic steel members. In most case your will use these members design modules in conjunction with Frame Analysis. After analysis, you will open the structural model in the design module, set the design parameters, and then perform the design. You can also use the modules for interactive design of steel members, entering the geometry and design loads manually.

**Member Design for Axial Stress** (struts and ties)
**Member Design for Combined Stress** (beams and columns)

Given the different design scope of the two programs, you may often use both modules to design different parts of the same structure, e.g. **Member Design for Combined Stress** to check the main framing elements and **Member Design for Axial Stress** to design the roof truss and cross-bracing.

When using the design modules, you can set up design tasks. Each task lists the members to be designed, the design parameters such as effective length factors, and the design approach. The design approach can be to either evelatuate the current sections (as defined in Frame Analysis) or to optimise the section sizes, i.e. choose the lightest sections that will resist the design loads. You can save the design tasks to a file so that you can easily recall it later, e.g. after you have made changes to the model and need to check the design again.

When designing simple beams, the **Member Design for Combined Stress** module can use the analysis output from the Single Span Beam Analysis module.

The programs generate the following design output:

**Member Design for Axial Stress**: Calcsheet with tabular design results listing slenderness ratios, allowable stress and design stress for each member.
**Member Design for Combined Stress**: Calcheet with summary or in-depth design calculations for every member and graphs showing axial force and bending moment distribution along the length of the member.

### Plastic Frame Analysis

Plastic and optimisation design of plane frames. Availability of this program was discontinued in 2007. Equivalent features and more are now available in Sumo Structural Modeller and Frame Analysis with the **Non-Linear Analysis** add-on.

### Crane Gantry Girder Design

Design and optimisation of crane gantry girders. The program supports several classes of cranes, multiple steel sections, capping sections, and multiple cranes on a single girder. It calculates the envelopes for all the required design forces (inlcuding vertical loads and horizontal effects of the moving cranes), moments and deflections.The design output includes deflection, bending moment and shear force diagrams, and calcsheets with detailed calculations.

### Plate Girder Design

Design of welded plate girders. The program is capable is designing I-shaped sections with identical or different top and bottom flanges. You can also make the section properties vary along the length of the girder to model a tapered element. Plate girders are normally used to resist high bending moments and/or vertical shear forces; correspondingly the program considers the effects of vertical load only. The design output includes vertical and horizontal deflection, bending moment and shear force diagrams, and also calcsheets with detailed calculations of all elements including stiffeners.

The **PROKON** suite includes a series of modules for designing concrete elements:

- Reinforced concrete beams and slabs.
- Prestressed concrete beams and slabs.
- Rectangular and circular columns, and also columns with any general shape.
- Retaining walls.
- Rectangular bases.
- Design of beam and slab sections for flexure, shear and torsion.
- Crackwidth calculation.
- Punching shear of flat slabs.

Input of the geometry and/or load cases in some modules can be automated by linking from the analysis results in Frame Analysis. The work flow is further enhanced by semi-automatic generation of reinforcement bending schedules by most of the concrete design modules. Bending schedules are stored as drawing files that can be opened with, edited (if needed) and printed using Padds or Probar 2D (formerly AutoPadds).

### Analysis-Design-Detailing Integration

Summary of integration between analysis, design and detailing modules:

### Continuous Beam/Slab Design

Design and detailing of reinforced concrete beams and slabs. Cross-sections can include a combination of rectangular, I, T and L-sections, and spans can have constant or tapered sections. You can design a single span (simply supported, fixed or cantilever) or many continuous spans. Spans can be supported on with or without rotational restraints, e.g. columns below and/or above.

The design calculations incorporates automated pattern loading (of dead and live loads). At ultimate limit state, moments and shears can be redistributed to a user specified percentage. Both short-term (elastic) and long-term deflections are calculated. The long-term deflection calculations take account of concrete cracking, shrinkage and creep. For beams and one-way spanning slabs, you can manipulate long-term deflections by editing the steel reinforcement.

Frame Analysis also provides a convenient way for generating input for this program. When you model a building structure, you can use the design links function to select a series if beam elements and export the analysis results (geometry together with the bending moment and shear force envelopes) to **Continuous Beam/Slab Design**.

You can generate complete bending schedules (main bars and shear reinforcement) for beams and slabs. A 3D picture helps you position the bars accurately and identify conflicts. The program automatically adjusts the reinforcement detailing rules according to the mode selected, e.g. beam or column strip of a flat slab. Using the rebar editor, it is easy to modify the main and shear reinforcement -- diagrams display the entered reinforcement together with the required amounts at ULS and minimum amounts required by the design code. You can open the generated bending schedules in Padds or Probar 2D for final editing (if needed) and printing.

### Captain - Prestressed Beam/Slab Design

Design and detailing of prestressed concrete beams and slabs. The program's name, Captain, is an acronym for Computer Aided Post-Tensioning *A*nalysis Instrument. Its workings is similar to that of **Continuous Beam/Slab Design**, but it adds additional design features such as complex sections such as bridge decks, and user-specified load combinations (as an alternative to pattern loading).

You can specify the characteristics of the prestressing tendons/cables, and use parabolic or harped profiles. The program has a function for automatic generation of tendon profiles that is based on balancing a specified percentage of dead load. You can also place of additional (conventional) steel reinforcement to contain cracking, control long-term deflection, and increase flexural or shear capacity at ULS. The program can also perform punching shear design checks for slabs, and include the ability to use column heads (drop panels).

Different to Continuous Beam/Slab Design, **Captain **can generate tendon profile schedules. Schedules can be edited and printed using Padds or Probar 2D.

### FESD - Finite Element Slab Design

Design of flat slabs using shell finite element analysis. Availability of this program was discontinued in 2008. Similar features and more are now available in Sumo Structural Modeller and Frame Analysis with the **Finite Element** add-on.

### Rectangular Slab Panel Design

Design and detailing of rectangular flat slab panels. The four corners of the slab panel are supported, e.g. columns) and you can specify the support conditions for each of the four edges: free, supported and/or continuous. You can enter multiple load cases comprising point loads, line loads and UDLs, and combine these with ULS load factors.

An automated reinforcement detailing allows you to edit reinforcement and generate a bending schedule that you can edit and print using Padds or Probar 2D.

The *PROKON* suite includes three concrete column design modules: one for rectangular columns, another for circular columns, and a third for designing columns with any general shape. For rectangular and circular columns you can enter the geometry and design loads manually, or automate data entry by linking from the analysis results in Frame Analysis.

### Rectangular Column Design

Design and detailing of rectangular columns. Columns can be short or slender in one or both directions, and different fixity conditions at the bottom and top. You can enter multiple load cases comprising axial load and moments about one or both axes at the bottom or top of the column. The program compiles column design charts and provides complete design calculation sheets.

Generating reinforcement bending schedules is easy; the program provides full control over the main bars and the stirrups. You can open the bending schedules in Padds or Probar 2D for final editing (if needed) and printing.

### Circular Column Design

Design and detailing of circular columns. The features and use of the program is similar to the **Rectangular Column Design** module, except that it specifically caters for circular columns.

### General Column Design

Design and detailing of concrete columns with any general shape. Data entry is similar to the **Rectangular Column Design** program, for entering the column geometry: you enter the column outline and any openings, as well as the position and size (if known) of each longitudinal reinforcement bar.

During the design, you have the option of evaluating the column capacity for the reinforcement bars as entered, or to calculate the minimum bar size required to resist the design loads.

You can generate a reinforcement bending schedule that you can edit and print with Padds or Probar 2D.

### Concrete Retaining Wall Design

Stability analysis, design and detailing of concrete retaining walls for soil and surcharge loads, and seismic load conditions. The program can consider cantilever, simply supported and propped cantilever walls. The host of input parameters allows you to enter complex wall geometries like sloping walls and toes.

The program allow you to choose between the Rankine and Coulomb theories, and can also incorporate seepage in the analysis. A water table can be specified; it may even be taken above the soil surface to model a liquid retaining wall.

Retaining walls are checked for stability (overturning and sliding at both SLS and ULS) as well as strength (flexure and shear at various positions in the wall and base).

The most common use of the program is to analyse a wall with dimensions as entered. However, functions are available to optimise certain wall dimensions, e.g. the depth of the toe needed to resist sliding.

The program uses the calculated design moments in the wall and base to determine the required reinforcement. This can be taken a step further to generate a bending schedule that you can edit and print with Padds or Probar 2D.

### Concrete Base Design

Design of rectangular column bases. The program can design bases with columns, stub columns, or no column. You can enter up to columns (or points of load application), each with multiple load cases. If the base forms part of a larger structure that you have analysed in Frame Analysis, you can link the analysis results with the Concrete Base Design program; this will extract the support reactions and insert them as load load cases.

Design output includes diagrams of the bearing stress distribution, safety factors for slip and overturning (at both SLS and ULS), linear shear and punching shear checks, and required reinforcement for flexure.

A simple-to-use reinforcement bending schedule generator creates drawings with rebar cutting lists that you can open and print with Padds or Probar 2D.

### Crack Width Design

Section analysis and crackwidth calculation under bending moment, direct tension and temperature loads. Calculations are performed for various combinations of reinforcement diameter and spacing.

### Concrete Section Design

Design of concrete sections for combined bending moment, shear and torsion. Sections can be rectangular, T or L-shaped. Design output includes detailed calculations and code references.

### Punching Shear Design

Design of reinforced concrete flat slabs for punching shear. You can design slabs at internal, edge and corner columns by specifying the distance from the support to the slab edge; the program automatically determines the shear perimeters. You can also enter the longitudinal reinforcement (that affects the shear capacity) in the two main directions.

The design output gives the critical load case with corresponding amounts of punching shear reinforcement needed for each perimeter.